Food

Cheese

Argentine Cheeses

Edam: Originally an imitation of Dutch Edam balls, Argentine "Magnasco" Edam has taken on an identity of its own. It is dryer and harder than Dutch Edam and good on crackers and with red wine.
Reggianito: Similar to Italian Parmigiano Reggiano. Mostly used for grating.
Sardo: Another grating cheese, similar to Italian Romano.

Austrian Cheeses

Emmental: Same characteristics as Swiss Emmental.


Canadian Cheeses

Cheddar: Same characteristics as English Cheddar.


Danish Cheeses

Blue Castello: A blue-veined cheese with an extremely buttery taste. The surface of the cheese is rindless, thus the entire cheese is edible.
Cream Havarti: Arguably Denmark's most famous cheese, Cream Havarti is a deliciously mild, very creamy, natural, semisoft cheese laced with small to mid-sized holes. Cream Havarti is both a table cheese and a dessert cheese to be served with fruit and wine. flavoured Cream Havartis are also available, with ingredients such as dill, jalapeno pepper or garlic and herbs.
Fontina: Danish Fontina is pale yellow and semisoft with a mild, slightly sweet flavour. A derivitive of its Italian namesake and a great table cheese that goes well with a light wine, Fontina is also a good sandwich cheese.
Saga: Original Saga is a cross between blue cheese and brie; a creamy, blue-veined cheese with a white-mold rind. It is very mild for a blue-veined cheese. Saga is an excellent dessert cheese that should be served with fruit and wine. It is also an excellent cheese in salads or as a snack on a cracker. Saga is now made in America as well as in Denmark.

English Cheeses

Cheddar: Cheddar cheeses were originally made in England; however, today they are manufactured in quite a number of countries. Fully cured, Cheddar is a hard, natural cheese. The rind, if any, is artificial, most often times wax. The colour of the wax used for coating does not indicate a level of quality. Normally, the colour of Cheddar ranges from white to pale yellow. Some Cheddars however have a colour added, giving the cheese a yellow-orange colour. Cheddar is always made from cow's milk and has a slightly crumbly texture if properly cured. If the cheese is too young, the texture is smooth. Cheddar gets a sharper taste the longer it matures. The important thing in purchasing Cheddar is to consider the age of the cheese. Of course, the older it is, the more it will cost.
Cheshire: One of the oldest English cheeses, allegedly invented during the 12th century. Cheshire is firm in texture and a bit more crumbly than Cheddar. Cheshire is rich, mellow and slightly salty with an excellent aftertaste, its flavour sharpens as it ages.
Devon Cream: Strawberry's famous partner, Devon Cream has a much wider application than just strawberries and cream. It is thick and rich, and needs to be spooned. This product is served over fruit, hot scones, fish or vegetables.
Double Gloucester: A natural hard cheese. Double Gloucester has a mild and rich flavour with a smooth texture and a creamy yellow colour. This cheese is excellent with fruit and beer.
Leicester: A natural hard cheese. Leicester has a rich, mild flavour with a flaky texture and a deep orange colour. This cheese is excellent with fruit and beer.
Stilton: Historically referred to as "The King Of Cheeses," Stilton is a blue-mold cheese with a rich and mellow flavour and a piquant aftertaste. It has narrow blue-green veins and a wrinkled rind which is not edible. Stilton is milder than Roquefort or Gorgonzola and is equally excellent for crumbling over salads or as a dessert cheese served with a Port Wine.
Wensleydale: Traditionally blue, because the cheese is lightly pressed, allowing the mould to penetrate. And blue Wensleydales are still available. But today it is usually a creamy white, crumbly cheese, with a fine curd and minimal texturing, thus a high moisture content. White Wensleydale is usually eaten young, at about a month old. Wensleydale is produced in Cheshire.

Finnish Cheeses

Finlandia Swiss: Similar characteristics to Switzerland Emmental. Aged over 100 days, it is sharp, rindless and delicious.
Lappi: Lappi is a semisoft, semisweet cheese that slices easily and is excellent in recipes and for melting. It comes from Finland's Lapland region.
Turunmaa: Similar to Danish Cream Havarti, Turunmaa is a deliciously mild, very creamy, natural, semisoft cheese laced with small to mid-sized holes. Like Cream Havarti, it is both a table cheese and a breakfast cheese to be served with fruit and bread.

French Cheeses

Brie: Brie is the best known French cheese and is aptly nicknamed "The Queen Of Cheeses". Several hundred years ago, Brie was one of the tributes which the subjects had to pay to the French kings. In France, Brie is very different from the cheese exported to the United States. "Real" French Brie is unstabilized and is at its peak of flavour when the surface turns slightly brown. As long as the cheese is still pure white, the cheese is not mature. Cutting unstabilized Brie before it is ripe will stop the maturing process and the cheese will never develop properly. Exported Brie, however, is stabilized and never matures. Stabilized Brie has a much longer shelf life and is not susceptible to bacteriological infections. Brie, one of the great dessert cheeses, comes as either a 1 or 2 kilogram wheel, and is packaged in a wooden box. In order to fully enjoy the experience, Brie must be served at room temperature.
Camembert: Another soft-ripened white mold cheese from France, Camembert, like Brie, is soft and creamy with an edible crust. A wheel of Camembert, however, is only 8 ounces and comes in its own wooden box.
Chevres: These cheeses are made from goat's milk. They come in many sizes and shapes such as round patties, log-shapes, drum-shapes, pyramids, round loaves, long loaves, etc.; their textures vary from soft, but firm like cream cheese, to extremely hard. Chevres are excellent dessert cheeses, often served as snacks, or with before dinner drinks. Goat cheese is often served as an ingredient in many fine dishes.
Comte: Comte is a natural, hard cheese with similar characteristics to Switzerland Gruyere.
Coulommiers: Similar to Camembert, a wheel of Coulommiers is slightly larger (12 ounces) and the cheese has a nuttier flavour with a thicker crust.
Emmental: Same characteristics as Swiss Emmental.
Mimolette: A semi-hard cow's milk cheese produced in Flanders and Normandy. It comes in spheres of about 7-8 pounds, it has an orange rind and interior. A firm texture with some small holes and a mild favor.
Morbier: A semisoft cow's milk cheese from Franche-Comte. It has a creamy brown crust, the interior is two layers of glossy, yellowish-ivory paste separated by a thin flavourless layer of ash. This separates the morning milking from the evening milking. It is a creamy cheese with a flavour of nuts and fruit and an aroma of fresh hay.
Munster: French Munster is one of the few cheeses which ripen from the inside out. Munster is dark yellow with a strong flavour. It should be served with dark bread and beer. French Munster has nothing in common with Domestic Munster, which is a white, mild cheese.
Pont L'Eveque: This semisoft, soft-ripened cheese from the Normandy region has a pronounced flavour, although its taste is not as strong as its smell. It has a firm body, yellow colour and an edible crust. The crust has ridges because it is cured on straw mats. Pont L'Eveque is an excellent dessert cheese that goes very well with a robust wine.
Pouligny-Saint-Pierre: An unpasturized goat's cheese from Berry, it is soft to hard depending on the age. Also depending on age its colour runs from a very white, creamy and fragile to a hard dry interior surrounded by a dark beige crust. All have a piquant flavour and goaty aroma.
Reblochon: From the French Alps, Reblochon is a semisoft, pale yellow, creamy cheese with a nutty flavour. Reblochon is a dessert cheese that goes well with red wine.
Roquefort: The most famous blue-mold cheese in the world, authentic Roquefort comes from caves near the Spanish border and is made from sheep's milk. Roquefort is sharp, peppery, piquant and distinct. The blue mold is added to the curd by mixing it with powdered bread containing the Pennicillium Roqueforti mold. The French eat Roquefort as a dessert cheese, although most Americans prefer it in salads or dips.
Saint-Marcellin: A soft, rindless cow's milk cheese from Dauphine, it is disk shaped wrapped in chestnut leaves and dipped in wine or eau-de-vie. It typically has a beige crust with blue mold and a soft beige creamy interior. It has an intensely rustic, nutty, fruity flavour.
Saint-Nectaire: A semi-soft cow's milk cheese, disk shaped from Auvergne. It has a smooth reddish rind, ivory to straw coloured interior, soft and supple texture. It is an earthy cheese with a fruity flavour and a grassy aroma.
Saint-Paulin: St. Paulin (also known as Port Salut, a licensed name) is a mild and very pleasing dessert or table cheese originally made by Trappist Monks. St. Paulin is creamy and butter-like, yet firm enough for slicing. Genuine Port Salut has an edible, orange rind. However, beware imitations that use a plastic, inedible rind. St. Paulin goes well with fruit and light wine.
Tomme de Savoie: A semi firm, dish shaped cow's milk cheese from Savoie in the French Alps. It has a distinct thick gray-brown rind with a beige or straw coloured paste. It has a slightly salty, mild but savory taste with an aroma reminiscent of a cheese cellar.

German Cheeses

Emmental: Same characteristics as Swiss Emmental.
Jermi Tortes: Jermi tortes are handmade, with alternating layers of cheese and exquisite fillings such as Norwegian Salmon, Walnut, French Herbs, etc. Jermi Tortes are dessert cheeses, excellent on fine bread or crackers.
Limburger: A soft-ripened cheese famous for its pungent odor, Limburger is a strong cheese that goes well with red wine or beer. Limburger has a thin crust, a soft texture, and is nearly white inside. During the two-month curing process, the cheese is constantly brushed with brine until it has absorbed all salt.
Munster: See French Munster.
Tilsit: A natural hard cheese, German Tilsit has a stronger flavour than its Scandinavian cousins. It has tiny hole formation and a firm texture suitable for slicing. Tilsit is an excellent sandwich cheese, good with robust wine or beer.

Greek Cheeses

Feta: Genuine Greek Feta is made from sheep's milk, with a distinct strong, slightly acidic flavour. Feta is crumbly in texture and white in colour. Feta is traditionally sold in glass jars, although modern packaging techniques have become more commonplace. Feta needs to be covered in brine at all times otherwise it will dry out and mold fast and needs to be refrigerated at all times. Feta is a true eating cheese, although most Americans think of it as a salad topping.
Kasseri: Pale yellow in colour, with a mild buttery flavour and a springy, kneaded texture. Kasseri is a versatile, multi-purpose cheese made from sheep's milk.
Kefalotyri: This hard, pale, golden yellow cheese has a tange flavour and a sharp aroma reminiscent of Italian Pecorino Romano. Harder and saltier than Kasseri, Kefalotyri is generally served grated over cooked dishes.
Mizithra: A cheese made from whey of Feta and Kefalotyri, Mizithra is available both fresh and aged. Fresh Mizithra is soft, similar to cottage cheese. Aged Mizithra is shaped like an ostrich egg, and is firm and pungent, rather like Italian Ricotta Salata. The aged variety makes an excellent grating cheese.

Dutch Cheeses

Edam: Edam is a semisoft to hard natural cheese, depending on age. Edam is similar in flavour to Gouda, but slightly dryer in texture and less creamy. Edam is traditionally shaped into 2 or 4 pound balls coated in red, yellow or black wax. Because of its shape and size, Edam makes an excellent gift basket centerpiece.
Gouda: Gouda is a semisoft to hard natural cheese, depending on age. It is pale yellow and slightly sweet and nutty. Gouda is considered to be one of the world's great cheeses. It is both a table cheese and a dessert cheese, excellent with fruit and wine.
Leyden: Leyden is a part-skim cheese laced with caraway or cumin seeds. It is semisoft to hard and bland in flavour. Its seeds give Leyden most of its taste.
Maasdam: Holland's answer to Jarlsberg, marketed under brand names such as Leerdammer, Westberg, etc.
Smoked Gouda: Smoked slowly in ancient brick ovens over smoldering hickory chip embers, this sausage shaped cheese is perfect for impromptu picnics, party platters or midnight snacks. Sensational with beer, this hardy cheese has an edible brown rind and a creamy, yellow interior.

Irish Cheeses

Baylough: A mixed herd of Fresians and distinctive Red and White Dutch cows provides the full-cream milk for Baylough, a hard-pressed waxed cheese which can mature for many months. Varieties: Oak-smoked, Garlic and Herbs, Fresh Garlic.
Coolea: The hills of Collea give their name to the Williams family's acclaimed raw milk gouda-style cheese. Young, mild Coolea is 6-8 weeks old; some is flavoured with nettles or herbs and garlic. Long-matured Coolea, piquant with a lingering finish, is becoming more and more sought-after .
Dunbarra: A soft cheese with an edible white rind, firmer than Brie yet distictively creamy. Hand-made by Dubliner Barra McFeely, this new cheese has already won three first prizes.
Gubbeen: Gubbeen's gentle flavours reflect the great care taken by Tom and Gina Ferguson in farming their herd of cows and curing the cheese. A fresh tasting, pliant textured cheese with a peach pink washed rind.
Knockalara: Knockalara is a fresh feta-style cheese made on the Waterford farm by Wolfgang and Agnes Schliebitz. Its light tang marries beatifully with fruity olive oil, so it's ideal in salads. Knockalara comes either plain or preserved in herb-flavoured olive oil.
Orla: On the Manch estate in Co Cork, Iris Diebrok and Oliver Jungwirth farm an organic flock of dairy sheep. Iris uses the milk for her award-winning semi-hard rind-washed cheese. Orla is matured for 2-6 months.

Italian Cheeses

Bel Paese: A semisoft cheese, Bel Paese is very similar to French . St. Paulin
Fontal: Fontal is similar to Fontina Val d'Aosta, and in fact was called Fontina until the milk farmers of Val d'Aosta obtained exclusive rights to the name in 1951.
Fontina Val d'Aosta: Genuine Fontina comes from the Val d'Aosta region of Italy, in the Alps near the French and Swiss borders. One of the few cheeses imported into America that is made from raw (unpasteurized) milk, it is a smooth, straw-coloured cheese with a brown rind. Fontina has a delicate, nutty, buttery sweet flavour. Fontina is the primary ingredient in Italian fonduta and is a pristine table or dessert cheese.
Gorgonzola: A blue-veined cheese made of cows milk, Gorgonzola is a soft table cheese. It is an antique cheese of great popular tradition with a compact, rough, hard, reddish crust and a firm but mellow paste interior which melts on the tongue. Its colour ranges from white to straw-yellow with an unmistakable marbled green or bluish-green mold. The taste ranges from mild to sharp, depending on age. Gorgonzola is also excellent in salads and dips.
Grana: This is the generic name for Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses.
Mascarpone: This cheese is virtually solidified cream, mildly coagulated and whipped into a velvety consistency. It hails from the Lombardy region and is served with fresh fruit or sweetened with sugar and used as a pastry ingredient, such as for Tiramisu.
Mozzarella di Bufala: "Buffalo" Mozzarella is made in the South of Italy from a mixture of water buffalo and cow's milk. This cheese is pure white, hand-formed into small balls. It is soft and rubbery and stored in a whey brine. It is best served with sliced tomatoes and fresh basil, drizzled with extra virgin olive oil and sprinkled with salt and pepper.
Parmigiano Reggiano: A very hard natural cheese, a full wheel of Parmigiano Reggiano weighs 75 lbs. and must be cut by a saw. Parmigiano Reggiano's flavour is unmistakably piquant and true cheese connoisseurs know when they are served an inferior imitation. Primarily a grating cheese, Parmigiano Reggiano is a great topping for soups, pasta dishes, veal, chicken, or salads. Buy this cheese as a wedge and grate it yourself so you know you are getting the real thing.
Provolone: Provolone has a slightly smoky flavour and is mellow and compact with a smooth, paste-like texture. Provolone has an inedible crust and has strings to hang from rafters. Aged long enough, Provolone can be grated. However, it is better known as a table or sandwich cheese.
Ricotta: Ricotta is made from whey collected from making other cheeses and re-cooked. It is white, creamy and mild and is primarily used as an ingredient in lasagna.
Ricotta Salata: When fresh Ricotta goes through its natural aging process, a hard, pungent cheese suitable for eating or grating results. Like fresh Ricotta, Ricotta Salata is almost white in colour.
Romano: A very hard cheese made from part-skim sheep's (Pecorino), goat's (Caprino) or cow's (Vecchino) milk. More mild than Parmigiano Reggiano, it is a very popular grating cheese that sharpens as it matures.
Taleggio: This semisoft, uncooked cheese from the region around Bergamo gains flavour and an accompanying odor as the cheese ages. The crust is pinkish-gray and the paste is white, supple and fruity. Taleggio is an excellent dessert cheese that goes very well with a robust wine.

Norwegian Cheeses

Gjetost: Gjetost (pronounced "Yay-Toast") is a hard cheese made from boiled goat's milk whey either blended with cow's milk or from 100% goat's milk. This cheese has a sweetish caramel-like taste and is dark brown in colour. Gjetost is a non-perishable dessert cheese that must be sliced paper-thin and placed on Norwegian flatbread. Norwegian children eat Gjetost in place of candy
Jarlsberg: The world's most famous "Baby Swiss", Jarlsberg has the consistency, texture and hole formation of Swiss Emmental, but its flavour is more nut-like and sweeter. A full wheel of Jarlsberg weighs about 20 lbs., one tenth the weight of a wheel of Emmental. Jarlsberg is an excellent all-around performer that can be used as a table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese. Serve it with wine, beer or aquavit.

Scottish Cheeses

Bishop Kennedy: A 'trappist' cheese originating in the medieval monasteries of France but still relatively unknown in Scotland. Full fat soft cheese, rind washed in malt whisky to produce a distinctive orangey red crust and a strong creamy taste. Runny when ripe.
Bonchester: Small coulomnier-style cheese made with unpasteurised Jersey milk. Available mainly March to December.
Bonnet: Amid, pressed goats milk cheese from small Ayrshire dairy. Similar to Inverloch (and Sanday).
Brie: Howgate Scottish Brie, traditionally made, matures to a runny sticky texture. Also Howgate Camembert.
Brodick Blue: Ewes milk blue cheese from Brodick.
Brodick: Arran blue is the cows milk version.
Caboc: (see cream cheese)
Caithness: a new mild, Danish style wax coated cheese. Also available smoked.
Cream Cheese: several versions, mostly based on revived traditional Highland recipes and rolled in oatmeal, including Caboc (Ross-shire), Howgate (Perthshire) and Lochaber-smoked. Available plain or with peppercorns, garlic or herbs.
Crowdie: a soft fresh cheese, several versions, mainly available only locally. Originally made using milk left after the cream had separated naturally. Plain or flavoured with peppercorns, garlic or herbs(Hramsa, Crannog, Gruth Dhu etc.)
Dunlop: resembles Scottish cheddar with soft texture. Mostly creamery-made in blocks on Arran and Islay but also traditionally in Ayrshire (Burns), near Dumfries and at Perth (Gowrie).
Dunsyre Blue: cows milk farmhouse blue cheese made on the same firm is Lanark Blue, with vegetarian rennet and unpasteurised milk.
Highlands and Islands:
'Drunileish' is produced on the Isle of Bute. A three month old mild cheese with a buttery flavour, uneven texture and piquant taste.
'Isle of Bute' (also produced on Bute) is a hard medium cheese with all the characteristics of a good cheddar.
'Mull of Kintyre', from the Campbeltown Creamery, is a mature cheddar with a nutty aroma and rounded taste.
'Highland', a mature cheese also from Campbeltown, has a unique, soft texture with a smooth flavour and strong aftertaste.
'Arran' cheddar, made by traditional methods, is a deliciously mellow medium to mature cheddar with a creamy soft texture.
Howgate: Established artisan farmhouse cheesemaker, originally from Howgate near Edinburgh, now in Dundee, pioneered the making in Scotland of continental cheeses including Howgate Brie, Camembert and Pentland. Other cheeses include St Andrews, Bishop Kennedy, Strathkinness and Howgate Highland Cream Cheese.
Inverloch: Pasteurised pressed goats cheese from Isle of Gigha. Coated in red wax. Also popular fruit shaped waxed cheeses.
Isle of Mull: traditional unpasteurised farmhouse cheddar from Tobermory. Cloth-bound.
Kelsae: unpasteurised pressed cheese made near Kelso from Jersey milk. Like Wenslensdale but creamier in texture and taste.
Lanark Blue: unpasteurised ewes milk cheese in the style of Roquefort.
Loch Arthur: traditional farmhouse organic cheddar from Loch Arthur near Dumfries. mull of Kintyre: small truckle of mature Scottish cheddar coated in black wax. A smoked version is also available.
The Orkney Isles: distinctive cheddar whose history goes back nearly two centuries, made in two creameries on Orkney. Several seasonal crofting cheeses sometimes available locally.
Pentland: white moulded soft cheese made in small quantities and not widely available.
St Andrews: award winning full fat, wished rind soft cheese, mild creamy, full flavoured with characteristic golden rind.
Scottish Cheddar: creamery produced cheddar now made in Galloway (Stranraer), Lockerbie, Rothesay and Campbeltown.
Stichill: unpasteurised creamy Jersey milk Cheshire style, from the Scottish Borders.
Strathkinness: award winning Scottish version of Gruyere, nearly 50 gallons of milk goes into a cheese! Matured 6-12 months. Limited availability.
Swinzie: pasteurised, pressed, ewes milk cheese from Ayrshire.
Teviotdate: vignotte style, white moulded unpasteurised cheese.

Spanish Cheeses

Cabrales: A renowned blue cheese from Northern Spain, Cabrales is made from blended cow's, goat's and sheep's milk. It is matured in naturally-formed caves and has a creamy texture, a complex flavour and a powerful bouquet.
Garrotxa: A semisoft cheese made from pasteurized goat's milk in Catalonia. It comes in grey-rined felt textured disks, it has a bone white interior. It has a mild flavour - nutty with herbal hints.
Iberico: A hard, oily cheese made from blended cow's, goat's and sheep's milk. It is mild yet tasty, aromatic and very popular. Good for cooking and for eating, it goes well with Spanish red wines.
Mahon: An aged cheese produced from cow's milk on Minorca, the outermost of the three Spanish Balearic Islands. Ripened for six months to two years the eight inch squares weighing 5 to 6 pounds, it is buttery sharp, slightly salty with a sweet and nutty aroma.
Manchego: This historic cheese is produced in the La Mancha region from pasteurized sheep's milk,. It has a black, gray or buff coloured rind with a crosshatch pattern, the interior ranges from stark white to yellowish, depending on age. It has an even distribution of holes and a mild, slightly briny, nutty flavour.
Roncal: A hard cheese from Navarre produced from sheep's milk and aged for a minimum of three months. It has a hard beige to gray rind with beige interior which turns to amber with age. It has a rich, olivey, nutty flavour.
Tetilla: A semisoft cheese produced from cow's milk in the Galicia region, it comes in squat cone shaped like a woman's breast (hence the name) about five inches in diameter. It has a greenish beige rind and a white interior. It has a mild and tangy flavour.
Tronchon: A semisoft cheese made from blended cow's, goat's and sheep's milk. It comes in rindless wheels with a dimple on top, a by-product of the manufacturing process. The interior is bone white and has many small holes.


Swedish Cheeses

Fontina: See Danish Fontina
Graddost: Sweden's most popular cheese, Graddost is deliciously mild and very creamy. It is laced with small to mid-sized holes and makes an excellent dessert cheese to be served with fruit and wine.
Herrgard: Sweden's second most popular cheese, Herrgard comes in large wheels and has a few small holes. It has similar characteristics to Cheddar and is pale yellow in colour.

Switzerland Cheeses

Appenzeller: A natural, hard cheese that is similar to Emmental, although with smaller and fewer holes. It is cured in white wine and spices that give it a unique piquant flavour.
Emmental: More commonly reffered to as "Swiss Cheese", Emmental is immitated by many cheese producing countries. Emmental is considered to be one of the most difficult cheeses to successfully manufacture because of its complicated, hole-forming fermentation process. Emmental can be used as a table cheese, dessert cheese or sandwich cheese.
Gruyere: Famous for its use in Swiss Fondue, Gruyere is a hard cheese that is similar to Emmental but with smaller hole formation. Its texture is chewy and it develops small cracks as it ages. In addition to its role as a Fondue cheese, Gruyere is also an excellent sandwich cheese that melts evenly.
Raclette: A hard cheese with a subtle flavour, good aftertaste and firm texture. Raclette is pale yellow inside an inedible crust. Raclette is famous for a Swiss dish made by melting thin slices over broiled potatoes.
Sap Sago: A tiny, green, 2 ounce cheese wrapped in foil, Sap Sago is a very hard grating cheese with a sharp flavour and a pungent aroma due to the use of a powder made from clover leaves added to the cheese during manufacture. Sap Sago is not an eating cheese, but is good as a food topping and in cooking.


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